How to Get Rid of Gophers – The Complete Guide
You’ll know as soon as gophers reside in your yard because you’ll see holes. Your plants will start dying. It won’t be unusual to see furry little heads pop up now and then with what appears to be a sinister grin. You might think gophers were cute if they were somewhere else, but right now, all you want is to get rid of them. You would prefer not to poison because you don’t want to harm other creatures. Are there natural ways to get rid of gophers? Are there ways to repel them, so you don’t have to kill them? Read on for our tips on how to get rid of gophers.
Gophers Are a Problem
Gophers create many problems when they invade your property. They dig a complex network of moderately deep tunnels. Their tunnels serve to aerate the soil, which is beneficial in the wild.
Their tunnels widen into areas for:
- Storing food,
- Depositing waste matter.
Gophers are commendable for their ability to keep all daily life functions in separate areas.
Unfortunately, their home-building efforts lead to a negative impact on your property.
They inflect damage by:
- Eating your vegetable garden.
- Destroying your flowers, trees, and other landscaping.
- Chewing holes in your watering system.
- Diverting your water and causing erosion.
- Leaving ugly dirt mounds all over.
Gophers can do an immense amount of damage in a short time.
Identifying a Problem
The gopher digs underground tunnels as a way to move from one feeding location to another. The tunnels can go up to 6 feet deep and several hundred feet in length.
Moles also create tunnels, so it’s easy to mistake a gopher problem for a mole problem. There are ways you can verify you’re faced with gophers and not moles.
As a gopher digs its burrow system, it pushes soil to the surface, creating a mound with a fan or crescent shape when viewed straight down. Dirt mounds created by moles have a conical shape and look like miniature volcanoes.
Gophers don’t hibernate. They’re active all year round. However, they’re most visibly active in the fall and spring when the soil’s moisture content is ideal for digging. In the winter, they tend to feed heavily on the roots of trees and shrubs.
A gopher can produce up to 70 mounds monthly and move 1-3 tons of soil to the ground surface in a year.
Apart from the shape of the mounds, there are several other signs of a gopher infestation.
- damage to roots, seeds, bark, bulbs, and other plant parts;
- holes or spongy spots in turf;
- girdled or clipped shrubs or trees just above the ground level;
- the disappearance of leaves, stems, fruits, or vegetables from the lawn and garden;
- surface irrigation loss because of tunnel drainage;
- gnawed water lines or electrical lines.
Did you know that gophers are notoriously solitary animals except during the mating season and produce 1 to 3 litters annually with 5-6 young per litter?
What Attracted to My Yard?
Gophers have eyes, and they can see, although poorly. They navigate by sensing vibrations. They can sense vibrations that you probably aren’t aware of. For example, the water in your irrigation lines and spigots vibrate. That tells them there’s moist ground, which is easy for them to dig. It also means food is growing there. Even small battery-operated devices emit vibrations that gophers find attractive.
They also have a strong sense of smell. Gophers find their food primarily by smell as they’re digging. Tuberous plants provide one of their favorite foods. They also love the leafy plants, such as lettuce, in your vegetable garden. If you have a healthy lawn, it will have a root system that provides tasty meals to gophers.
When Will I See a Gopher Pop Out of A Hole?
Gophers prefer to stay underground as much as they can. If you see one pop up out of a hole, it’s usually just pushing dirt out. You may occasionally see one a few inches away from its hole, eating a plant. More often, they’ll just burrow under the plant and pull it into their hole to eat. In snowy climates, you might see a gopher that’s eating tree bark.
Other than during breeding season or when mothers are caring for their young, gophers live alone. You might see the young gophers leaving their birth nests to establish their own homes.
Gophers start reproducing themselves when they’re about a year old. In ideal environments, they can have as many as three litters a year. Otherwise, litters are limited to one a year. Litters average five or six pups. Gophers live for about three years.
Gophers do not hibernate, although you might not see them during adverse weather conditions. They are also active day and night.
How Do I Find Tunnels?
If you plan to trap or use poison bait to eradicate gophers, you need to locate their main tunnel. Using a gopher probe works better than blind luck. You can purchase a probe or make your own. It just needs to be strong enough to penetrate the soil.
Most people have success following this process:
- Look for a fresh mound of dirt.
- Examine the opening for a dirt plug.
- If it has a plug, it’s active; if not, move to another mound.
- Start probing about a foot away from the plugged opening.
- If your probe suddenly drops several inches, you’ve located the main burrow.
- If not, keep probing slightly closer or slightly further away.
Once you’ve located the main burrow, set your trap or bait.
5 Effective Steps on How to Get Rid of Gophers From Your Yard
Gophers can be a nuisance and difficult to get rid of without professional help. Luckily, you don't have to hire an exterminator and spend your hard-earned money when it's possible to do the job yourself. Here are 5 steps on how to get rid of these pesky animals.
Eliminate gopher food sources
Gophers are known to eat plants, shrubs, and the most common trees. They also love bulbs, roots of perennials, strawberries, vegetables in your garden, small rodents' nests, molehills, and frogs' eggs. To get rid of gophers in your yard it is important to eliminate their favorite food sources. If you remove what they are looking for is likely that they will look somewhere else to find an alternative source.
Out of all the available plants in the market, there are some species that gophers tend not to eat or do not prefer at all including lavender, marigolds, yarrow, larkspur, bee balm, iris.
- Small rodents
Gophers usually go after smaller animals' nests because they are looking for eggs or baby rodents. To get rid of gophers you will need to fix any leaks around your home since this causes an increase in humidity which attracts small rodents so there is no more food available for them on your property.
Vegetable gardens are another favorite food source for gophers so it is important not to grow them next to your house, instead, put them away from where you notice gopher activity. The best thing about vegetables is that you can easily replace them with other non-gopher-friendly options such as flowers since carrots, lettuce, tomatoes, etc. don't need a lot of attention or care compared to vegetable gardens which need water, sunlight, and fertilizing.
Make sure your yard is free of brush piles and other hiding places for gophers
Gophers are solitary creatures and prefer to be alone, but they will build their tunnel systems close to other gophers to have a quick escape from predators. If you take time daily looking for grass that is too high or piles of brush in your yard you will see marks where the dirt was pushed outwards every now and then (e.g., like a pattern). Gopher holes can be seen throughout the year as they tend not to stay in the same place all the time; this kind of behavior makes it easy to spot them if you know what to look for.
- Brush Piles
Brush piles should never be left unattended next to your house or near your garden as gophers like hiding places and usually make their homes inside large piles of brush.
- Trimming Grass
Trim the grass regularly if you want to stop gophers from entering your garden or yard as they do not like to be exposed at all times.
You can find molehills all over the yard so it's important to dispose of them by filling up the tunnels with some dirt or leaves even if you don't see an entrance; these mounds indicate that there's a tunnel close-by.
- Brush Piles
Install a metal mesh fence around your garden to keep out rodents like gophers, moles, and voles
A metal mesh fence will keep away gophers and other rodents by creating a physical barrier between your yard and the tunnel system. The mesh should be smaller than your gopher holes so that they cannot get in easily and it needs to be buried at least 8 inches deep into the ground.Type of Metal: Galvanized steel is the most efficient option while plastic/nylon can also work if it is very thick (at least ¼ inch).
Gophers tend to love perennial roots because they are tasty and easy to chew. Most of the time these plants will die when gophers start digging in their roots. You can prevent this by applying tree guards or heavy metal grids over the damaged areas.
Use natural repellents
Natural repellents are non-toxic, making them safe to use around children, pets, and vegetation. A natural way to get rid of gophers is by using castor oil. This substance is very effective in getting rid of pests like moles and mice; however, it can also be used against insects, snails, and other invertebrates.
How to use:
Mix 4 tablespoons of pure castor oil with ½ cup baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) then add 1 tablespoon of dishwashing liquid (any brand you like), stir well until all the ingredients have blended together. Apply this mixture directly into active tunnel systems or near their entrance points.This mixture must be reapplied every 2-3 days during the first week of application, then once a week if necessary.
Trap the gophers
Live trapping is the safest method to capture gophers alive and release them elsewhere (at least 2 miles away from your house). You can make a homemade lethal trap or you can opt for one of the commercial products available, known to be extremely efficient. Lethal traps are usually made with castor oil as well; however, these products often come with other ingredients that help in the efficiency of the product (e.g., peanut butter).How to use: Place poison bait inside the tunnels close enough so that they smell it but not so far so they don't take it back to their holes. For "live cages" place some vegetables inside along with some nesting material (e.g., hay or newspaper) and put the lid back on. Once you catch one, take it far away from where there is no way for them to come back and release it immediately so that it doesn't die in your garden or somewhere else.
What can be used as bait: castor oil (pure) combined with garlic powder, black pepper, baking soda (sodium bicarbonate), parsley flakes, cayenne pepper, aniseed.
How Can I Remove Gophers?
As with other pests, there is more than one way to get rid of gophers.
- Try to repel them.
- Construct barriers to prevent their entrance.
- Set traps.
- Use poison baits.
- Use fumigants, explosive devices, or gasses.
If your neighbors also have gophers, you’ll probably have to coordinate your efforts with them.
Factors that can influence your choice include:
- Whether your intent is to repel gophers or kill them.
- How large your property is.
- How much of your property is infested.
- If children or pets play in your yard.
What Are Some Good Removal Methods?
People often choose to kill gophers as a way of getting rid of them. Setting gopher traps is effective if you can find the main burrow. Experts recommend the Macabee trap as a good choice.
Types of traps include:
- Twisted-wire trap.
- Red box trap.
- Black hole trap.
- Black box trap.
- Death Clutch wire trap.
Regardless of which brand or kind of trap you purchase, buy at least two.
You won’t be able to determine from looking at a tunnel which way the gopher is digging. That makes it necessary to set two traps, facing opposite directions. That way, no matter which way the gopher digs, it will run into a trap. If you can afford to do so, buy enough traps to set two in each gopher hole you can find. There’s more information on using gopher traps here.
Trapping is a popular method of controlling gophers. You can set gopher traps throughout the year, but they’re generally more efficient in the spring and fall.
Traps can be set in main tunnels or lateral tunnels. You can bait them with carrots, lettuce, alfalfa, apples, or peanut butter. Nevertheless, traps will work without bait provided they’re properly placed in the ground. If a trap hasn’t captured a gopher after two days, you should move it to a new location.
Traps can kill gophers in 48 hours when used correctly.
Let’s take a look at some traps that can help you get rid of these pesky little troublemakers.
1. Victor The Black Box Gopher Trap
This choker-loop style trap is more effective than conventional box and wire claw traps. It can kill gophers in less than 48 hours if used properly. It’s suitable for use in all soil types. Its plastic and galvanized steel construction gives it superior strength and durability.
2. Victor Easy Set Gopher Trap Twin-Pack
Just as the name suggests, this trap is easy to set. It’s made of galvanized steel which makes it strong and durable. You can use it in all soil types. For more details on gopher traps, go here.
Baiting involves dropping poison baits into the gopher tunnels. Baits should always be placed in the main tunnels and not the lateral tunnels.
Here are some of the gopher baits you can consider buying:
1. Victor Poison Peanuts Mole & Gopher Killer Pellets
These poisonous peanuts quickly kill gophers after they ingest them. The canister has a cone tip to make it easier to punch holes through active tunnels and apply the bait.
2. JT Eaton Gopher Bait Poison Blocks
This bait comes in a 10-lb pail that has resealable packaging for long-term use. The active ingredient in the bait blocks is the anticoagulant 0.005% Diphacinone, which effectively kills rodents.
If you choose to use poison, you need to understand that effective products contain strychnine. You cannot use poisons in locations where a child or pet can get into it. You will need to find gopher tunnels that are deep and use a funnel or bait applicator to pour in the bait.
Strychnine kills gophers with just one feeding. It also kills anything that eats the dead gopher. Because strychnine is so lethal, it’s marketed in fewer and fewer outlets, and you may have difficulty in finding it.
Gopher Problems in My Yard
Traps are most effective in small yards, especially at the beginning of the gopher invasion. If you have a large area or if your yard is continually infested with gophers, then poison bait can be a better choice. It’s easier to use than setting multiple traps.
If you can’t buy strychnine in your area or prefer not to use it, look for gopher bait made with zinc phosphide. Like strychnine, it kills gophers with one feeding. However, it isn’t as toxic to the animals that eat the dead gophers as strychnine is. Chlorophacinone is another gopher’s poison. Gophers have to eat large amounts of it before they die.
Some homeowners use rat bait to kill gophers. That’s iffy at best. It has to be appealing enough to the gophers for them to eat it, which it usually isn’t, and they have to eat a lot of it. You’re better off using products intended for gophers.
Because gophers and moles live underground, and they both destroy yards, homeowners often aren’t able to tell the difference between them. They do look different, but perhaps the easiest way to determine which is invading your property is to look at the mounds they leave.
Moles dig shallow tunnels that leave a raised ridge on your lawn. Their mounds are cone-shaped and look like tiny volcanoes to most homeowners. Gopher tunnels are deeper and not visible on the surface. A gopher mound is crescent or horseshoe-shaped. Active gopher holes will also have a plug of loose dirt.
A mole is not a rodent. A gopher is a rodent. Because of their differences, repelling or eradicating either requires different methods. That’s why it’s important to know which pest you have.
You can purchase fumigants, gasses, and explosive devices designed to kill gophers. Explosives will kill the gophers immediately if correctly placed.
Fumes can kill the gophers directly or cut off their oxygen and suffocate them. Success with this method is limited because the gopher’s superior sense of smell will detect any fumes before they can be lethal. Gophers are fast diggers, and they can seal off any tunnel before the fumes reach them.
Fumigants or gasses should be inserted into every gopher hole in your yard and all of them started at the same time. Miss a hole or start them intermittently, and the gophers win. The advantage of fumigants and gasses is that they are safer than traps, poisons, or explosions.
You can eradicate gophers in your backyard in much the same way as you get rid of them anywhere else on your property. What makes backyards more of a problem is that’s the area in which children or pets most frequently play. Their activities can limit your choices.
Although certain vibrations attract gophers, in general they dislike noise. Some homeowners have used portable radios to their advantage. Simply turn on the radio, seal it in a plastic bag to protect it from moisture, and stick it in the gopher hole. Gophers apparently don’t like music.
You can also use wind chimes. Although the sound they make is pleasing to most people, gophers don’t care for it. They move to a quieter habitat.
Once gophers invade your yard, it can be an unending task to get rid of them. The ones you kill will be replaced by others for as long as your yard provides a desirable habitat for them. You may have more success by making your property inhospitable to gophers. Combine that with repelling them for the best results.
Methods you can try include:
- Plant in raised beds.
- Install a layer of hardware cloth under flower beds.
- Place galvanized wire shields around individual plants.
- Bury fences underground and extend them a foot above ground.
- Plant a barrier of rhizomes.
You can also purchase a non-toxic solution that has odor gophers find unpleasant. It repels them when it’s spread over your property.
Try growing plants that gophers dislike.
- Castor bean,
- Euphorbia lathyris (gopher spurge),
Local nurseries can advise you as to which plants will grow in your area and may know of indigenous varieties that repel pests.
Underground wire mesh fencing can help you get rid of gophers. Since they like to feed on plants and certain plant structures such as roots and tubers, installing this type of fencing can exclude these pests from your entire yard or a particular vulnerable area such as your garden.
The mesh prevents these burrowing pests from pushing dirt to the surface or living above the fence.
For best results, consider the following:
- Place 1-2 inches of soil between the wire mesh and sod roots. Don’t place the mesh directly below the sod because that will allow the gopher to feed on the roots from the other side of the fence. You should also avoid installing the fence too low because the gophers will simply tunnel above it.
- To successfully exclude gophers, the wire mesh openings should be small enough. A galvanized hardware cloth that has ½ by 1-inch openings will work well.
You can also line the perimeter of your lawn or garden with a wire mesh fence.
Here are the considerations you should make:
- The fence should be buried at least one foot underground and stick out a few inches above the ground. That will prevent gophers from burrowing or climbing over it.
- To keep out persistent gophers that may dig below the fence, reinforce this control method with a gopher repellent.
Humane Methods: Remove Gophers Without Killing Them
One of the best ways to remove gophers without killing them is by using live traps. You can then relocate the live gophers into the wild.
If you’re looking to stop a gopher problem before it starts or keep these annoying rodents away without killing them, considers using gopher repellents. These products make an area unappealing to the gophers, forcing them to relocate.
Repellent products can be organic, chemical, mechanical, or electronic. Let’s explore some of the commonly used gopher repellents.
Castor Oil Repellents
Castor oil has a noxious taste and a laxative effect. Its overwhelming odor repels gophers.
Castor oil repellents can also coat your vegetation and spoil its taste. The unpleasant taste and smell force gophers to look for food elsewhere.
These products are available in granular or liquid form:
- Granular repellents
You apply castor oil granules by sprinkling them onto an area of your yard or your entire property. You can then water the granules in or wait for the rain to do that for you. As the granules dissolve, they release a repulsive smell.
- Liquid repellents
Use a hose end applicator to spray these repellents on your flowerbed and lawn.
An ultrasonic repellent uses batteries or solar power to create a high-pitched sound in the ground. This constant noise bothers gophers and encourages them to move elsewhere.
You can also pair the repellent with poison bait.
After the gophers leave your property, you can leave the ultrasonic repellents in the ground to prevent return visits.
What Is the Best Gopher Repellent
All the different repellents available are designed to encourage gophers to vacate your property. Although you may manage to get rid of gophers with just one type of gopher repellent, the best method to adopt is putting two or more control solutions to work. The more solutions you use, the higher your chances of long-term gopher control.
Regardless of the repellents you choose, you’ll need to use them persistently to achieve success in eliminating gophers.
Top 3 Best Gopher Repellents to Buy in 2023
Definitely, you don’t want to experience the massive damage that gophers can bring about when they take up residence in your yard. You’ll need to have the right control products to deal with and stop these destructive rodents.
Here are some top repellents that many people have found success with:
1. Victor Mole & Gopher Repellent Granules
These 10% Castor Oil granules repel gophers, moles, and other burrowing animals. They make the ground smell and taste unpleasant. The product covers up to 10,000 square feet.
2. Bonide MOLEMAX Mole & Vole Repellent Granules
With 10% Castor Oil, the granules repel gophers, moles, armadillos, voles, skunks, rabbits, and other burrowing animals. This repellent provides 5,000 square feet of coverage and can last 3 months.
3. Solar-Powered Ultrasonic Repellent Spikes
This device emits sounds and vibrations every 30 seconds, making rodents avoid the area. It’s solar-powered and hence easy to maintain.
If you want to save your family and property from harmful chemicals, you can use natural deterrents to get rid of gophers. These techniques take advantage of gopher habits and habitat requirements.
Take a look at some of the natural solutions you can use:
- Plants they hate. You can repel gophers by growing plants that they find unappetizing such as gopher spurge, sage, daffodils, iris, castor oil plant, thyme, and geranium.
- Used cat litter. Fill the gopher hole with used cat litter or dog feces.
- Fruit flavored gum or soft, chewy candy. Put soft candies or chewing gum in the gopher tunnels. The gopher is likely to die if it eats this sweet treat.
- Water. Use a hose to flood the tunnel or pour 5 or more gallons of water into it. This will force the gopher to vacate the burrow.
- Coffee grounds. Sprinkle the grounds into the gopher tunnels. Next, cover them with soil. Spread some coffee grounds around your garden area as well. They will help deter gophers.
- Fish. Gophers dislike the fish scent. Place fish scraps in or near the tunnels.
- Fabric softener sheets. Stuffing new fabric softener sheets in the holes.
- Tabasco sauce. Add 1 teaspoon of this sauce, a few peppermint essential oil drops, and ½ cup of castor oil to a cup of water. Mix well and then immerse some cotton balls in the solution. Put these balls in the tunnels. They’ll help repel gophers from your garden.
Anything you place in a gopher hole should be covered with a light layer of soil.
How to Protect My Lawn
You need to take steps to stop gophers as soon as you see the first mound or gopher hole. One gopher can devastate your lawn quickly, and others will soon follow. There can be up to 60 gophers living on one acre. Other pests can also occupy deserted gopher tunnels and burrows.
Using natural predators can help you get rid of gophers without destroying your lawn.
- Your cat or dog, if it’s a hunter.
You can talk to local wildlife experts about the best way to attract gopher predators and the safety precautions you need to take.
It doesn’t take gophers long to dig tunnels and leave holes all over your yard. Not only are the results unsightly, but you can also potentially break your ankle or leg if you unwittingly step into a gopher hole. Although they are usually just destructive pests, gophers can and do bite humans. Their bites can transmit the viruses that cause meningitis, encephalitis, and plague. Gophers can be beneficial in the wild, but you need to know how to get rid of them if they invade your property.
Everyone wants a beautiful yard. Unfortunately, gophers don’t care about where and what they dig, and can destroy all the countless hours of hard work you’ve put into making your yard the envy of the neighborhood. Put an end to their disheartening activities by using the above essential gopher control tips and solutions.
Table of Contents
- Gophers Are a Problem
- 5 Effective Steps on How to Get Rid of Gophers From Your Yard
- How Can I Remove Gophers?
- Gopher Problems in My Yard
- Naturally Methods
- Humane Methods: Remove Gophers Without Killing Them
- Natural Deterrents
- How to Protect My Lawn